Ultimately, Aram and Mourad returned the horse to its rightful owner, John Byro. It gives birth to two questions. Were they conscience-stricken or afraid? The answer is very simple. They were conscience-stricken. Both of them belonged to the Garoghlanian family.
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Located in Western Asia ,   on the Armenian Highlands , it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.
Under the Bagratuni dynasty , the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire , while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. In , following the Russian Revolution , all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By , the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic , and in became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In , the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic , into full Union republics.
The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church , the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh , which was proclaimed in However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos ,   Faustus of Byzantium ,   Ghazar Parpetsi ,  Koryun ,  and Sebeos.
Additionally, while it is agreed that Arme was located to the immediate west of Lake Van and therefore in the greater Armenia region , the location of the older site of Armani is a matter of debate. Some modern researchers have placed it in the same general area of Arme, near modern Samsat ,  and have suggested it was populated, at least partially, by an early Indo-European-speaking people.
According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram , a lineal descendant of Hayk. Jubilees also apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem , which Jubilees expounds to be apportioned to Aram. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about BC.
Archaeological surveys in and at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe ,  skirt,  and wine-producing facility. Historically, this event coincides with the destruction of Akkad by the Gutian dynasty of Sumer in BC,  a time when Hayk may have left with the "more than members of his household" as told in the legend, and also during the beginning of when a Mesopotamian Dark Age was occurring due to the fall of the Akkadian Empire in BC which may have acted as a backdrop for the events in the legend making him leave Mesopotamia.
Several Bronze Age cultures and states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Trialeti-Vanadzor culture , Hayasa-Azzi , and Mitanni located in southwestern historical Armenia , all of which are believed to have had Indo-European populations. Each of the aforementioned nations and confederacies participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenians. Yerevan is the world's oldest city to have documented the exact date of its foundation.
During the late 6th century BC, the first geographical entity that was called Armenia by neighbouring populations was established under the Orontid Dynasty within the Achaemenid Empire , as part of the latters' territories.
The kingdom became fully sovereign from the sphere of influence of the Seleucid Empire in BC under King Artaxias I and begun the rule of the Artaxiad dynasty. In the next centuries, Armenia was in the Persian Empire 's sphere of influence during the reign of Tiridates I , the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia , which itself was a branch of the Parthian Empire. Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia enjoyed both periods of independence and periods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires.
Religion in ancient Armenia was historically related to a set of beliefs that, in Persia, led to the emergence of Zoroastrianism. It particularly focused on the worship of Mithra and also included a pantheon of gods such as Aramazd , Vahagn , Anahit , and Astghik. The country used the solar Armenian calendar , which consisted of 12 months. Christianity spread into the country as early as AD Prior to this, during the latter part of the Parthian period, Armenia was a predominantly Zoroastrian country.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Armenia in , most of Armenia was incorporated as a marzpanate within the Sasanian Empire. Following the Battle of Avarayr in , Christian Armenians maintained their religion and Armenia gained autonomy. After the Sasanian period — , Armenia emerged as Arminiya , an autonomous principality under the Umayyad Caliphate , reuniting Armenian lands previously taken by the Byzantine Empire as well. The principality was ruled by the Prince of Armenia, and recognised by the Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor.
Arminiya lasted until , when it regained its independence from the weakened Abbasid Caliphate under Ashot I of Armenia. The reemergent Armenian kingdom was ruled by the Bagratuni dynasty and lasted until In time, several areas of the Bagratid Armenia separated as independent kingdoms and principalities such as the Kingdom of Vaspurakan ruled by the House of Artsruni in the south, Kingdom of Syunik in the east, or Kingdom of Artsakh on the territory of modern Nagorno-Karabakh , while still recognising the supremacy of the Bagratid kings.
In , the Byzantine Empire conquered Bagratid Armenia. Soon, the other Armenian states fell under Byzantine control as well. The Byzantine rule was short lived, as in the Seljuk Empire defeated the Byzantines and conquered Armenia at the Battle of Manzikert , establishing the Seljuk Empire.
Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders , and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region.
The Seljuk Empire soon started to collapse. In the early 12th century, Armenian princes of the Zakarid family drove out the Seljuk Turks and established a semi-independent principality in northern and eastern Armenia known as Zakarid Armenia , which lasted under the patronage of the Georgian Kingdom. After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, with time Armenia became weakened. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya , and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century,  Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia remained under Ottoman rule.
From , Abbas I of Iran implemented a " scorched earth " policy in the region to protect his north-western frontier against any invading Ottoman forces, a policy that involved a forced resettlement of masses of Armenians outside of their homelands. While Western Armenia still remained under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire including the ruling Turks.
However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social structure , Armenians faced pervasive discrimination. When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Hamid II , in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians between and , resulting in an estimated death toll of 80, to , people.
The Hamidian massacres , as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan". During the s, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation , commonly known as Dashnaktsutyun , became active within the Ottoman Empire with the aim of unifying the various small groups in the empire that were advocating for reform and defending Armenian villages from massacres that were widespread in some of the Armenian-populated areas of the empire.
Dashnaktsutyun members also formed Armenian fedayi groups that defended Armenian civilians through armed resistance. The Dashnaks also worked for the wider goal of creating a "free, independent and unified" Armenia, although they sometimes set aside this goal in favour of a more realistic approach, such as advocating autonomy.
In April , the Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire resulting in the deaths of as many as 20,—30, Armenians. The Armenians living in the empire hoped that the Committee of Union and Progress would change their second-class status. The Armenian reform package was presented as a solution by appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues.
The new government in Istanbul began to look on the Armenians with distrust and suspicion, because the Imperial Russian Army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers.
On 24 April , Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities and, with the Tehcir Law 29 May , eventually a large proportion of Armenians living in Anatolia perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide. The genocide was implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert.
Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. The events of to are regarded by Armenians and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide. Turkish authorities deny the genocide took place to this day.
The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides. Toynbee , an estimated , Armenians died during deportation from — This figure, however, accounts for solely the first year of the Genocide and does not take into account those who died or were killed after the report was compiled on 24 May This federation, however, lasted from only February to May , when all three parties decided to dissolve it.
As a result, the Dashnaktsutyun government of Eastern Armenia declared its independence on 28 May as the First Republic of Armenia under the leadership of Aram Manukian. The First Republic's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes , and a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, bringing with them disease and starvation. The Entente Powers , appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly founded Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support.
At the end of the war, the victorious powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. In addition, just days prior, on 5 August , Mihran Damadian of the Armenian National Union, the de facto Armenian administration in Cilicia, declared the independence of Cilicia as an Armenian autonomous republic under French protectorate.
There was even consideration of making Armenia a mandate under the protection of the United States. The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement , and never came into effect. The movement used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey , replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul with a republic based in Ankara. In , Turkish nationalist forces invaded the fledgling Armenian republic from the east. The violent conflict finally concluded with the Treaty of Alexandropol on 2 December By 4 December, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed.
After the fall of the republic, the February Uprising soon took place in , and led to the establishment of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia by Armenian forces under command of Garegin Nzhdeh on 26 April, which fought off both Soviet and Turkish intrusions in the Zangezur region of southern Armenia. After Soviet agreements to include the Syunik Province in Armenia's borders, the rebellion ended and the Red Army took control of the region on 13 July.
Armenians enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire.
The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin , Joseph Stalin took the reins of power and began an era of renewed fear and terror for Armenians. Armenia was not the scene of any battles in World War II. An estimated , Armenians nearly a third of the population served in the Red Army during the war, and , died.
Fears decreased when Stalin died in and Nikita Khrushchev emerged as the Soviet Union's new leader. Soon, life in Soviet Armenia began to see rapid improvement.
The church, which suffered greatly under Stalin, was revived when Catholicos Vazgen I assumed the duties of his office in In , a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide was built at the Tsitsernakaberd hill above the Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan. This occurred after mass demonstrations took place on the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in During the Gorbachev era of the s, with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika , Armenians began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought.
Tensions also developed between Soviet Azerbaijan and its autonomous district of Nagorno-Karabakh , a majority-Armenian region. About , Armenians lived in Azerbaijan in
The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse
Located in Western Asia ,   on the Armenian Highlands , it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. The Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. Under the Bagratuni dynasty , the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.