In this review, updated and precise definitions of the most common postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows are provided. An aberrant uterine environment at inappropriate stages of the reproductive cycle inflicts damage to gametes and zygotes, impairing the reproductive performance of dairy cows. This involves major economic losses for the milk production unit. Consequently, an accurate diagnosis of postpartum uterine diseases is indispensable for practitioners to set up a prompt and efficient treatment. This review furthermore emphasizes on the new perspectives regarding diagnosis and treatment of subclinical endometritis, a highly prevalent uterine disease that is often overlooked by practitioners while causing major reproductive problems. Based on a more profound clinical understanding of the postpartum uterine disease complex, practitioners will be able to better use the available diagnostic tools and therefore apply a more efficient therapeutic approach.
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In this review, updated and precise definitions of the most common postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows are provided. An aberrant uterine environment at inappropriate stages of the reproductive cycle inflicts damage to gametes and zygotes, impairing the reproductive performance of dairy cows. This involves major economic losses for the milk production unit.
Consequently, an accurate diagnosis of postpartum uterine diseases is indispensable for practitioners to set up a prompt and efficient treatment. This review furthermore emphasizes on the new perspectives regarding diagnosis and treatment of subclinical endometritis, a highly prevalent uterine disease that is often overlooked by practitioners while causing major reproductive problems.
Based on a more profound clinical understanding of the postpartum uterine disease complex, practitioners will be able to better use the available diagnostic tools and therefore apply a more efficient therapeutic approach. Las enfermedades del postparto uterino son la causa principal de ineficiencia reproductiva en el ganado lechero 1. Por lo general, la EC se diagnostica por medio de un vaginoscopio, una mano enguantada o el metri-check 32 , La presencia de exudado vaginal en la actualidad se conoce como "flujo vaginal purulento".
Se ha observado que las prostaglandinas son ligeramente beneficiosas 37 o ineficientes Sin embargo, en el ganado vacuno, la biopsia endometrial se utiliza raramente puesto que se considera laboriosa, costosa y potencialmente perjudicial para la fertilidad 7 , 57 , 58 , 59 , En el , por primera vez, el CC fue adaptado para colectar muestras del endometrio en vacas En consecuencia, comparar los resultados entre estudios es casi imposible.
Los factores de riesgo asociados con la prevalencia de CITO fueron diferentes en vacas versus vaquillas. Sin embargo, es importante mencionar que actualmente no existe un consenso sobre un tratamiento efectivo para la CITO. A comparison of diagnostic techniques for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle. Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition. Vet J. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle.
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Dairy Sci. Physiology and treatment of retained fetal membranes in cattle. J Vet Intern Med. Dubuc J. Postpartum uterine diseases: prevalence, impacts, and treatments.
Adv Dairy Technol. Stevens R, Dinsmore R. Treatment of dairy cows at parturition with prostaglandin F2 alpha or oxytocin for prevention of retained fetal membranes.
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Oxytetracycline residues in milk after intrauterine treatment of cows with retained fetal membranes. Evaluation of a systemic antibiotic treatment of toxic puerperal metritis in dairy cows. Markusfeld O. Factors responsible for post parturient metritis in dairy cattle.
Overton M, Fetrow J. Economics of postpartum uterine health. Proc Dairy Cattle Reproduction Council. Metritis causes long term decreases in the milk production of multiparous Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. Metritis in dairy cows: Risk factors and reproductive performance. Multilocation trial of ceftiofur for treatment of postpartum cows with fever.
Randomized, controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of acute puerperal metritis in dairy cows.
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Evaluation of the Metricheck device and the gloved hand for the diagnosis of clinical endometritis in dairy cows. Association between endometritis diagnosis using a novel intravaginal device and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Anim Reprod Sci. Effect of endocervical inflammation on days to conception in dairy cows. Postpartum uterine disease and dairy herd reproductive performance: a review.
Effect of presence of clinical and subclinical endometritis at the initiation of Presynch-Ovsynch program on the first service pregnancy in dairy cows. The effect of treatment of clinical endometritis on reproductive performance in dairy cows. McDougall S. Effect of intrauterine treatment with cephapirin of dairy cows following peripartum disease on the subsequent reproductive performance. Cattle Pract. Effect of intrauterine treatment with cephapirin on the reproductive performance of seasonally calving dairy cows at risk of endometritis following periparturient disease.
Effectiveness of intrauterine treatment with cephapirin in dairy cows with purulent vaginal discharge.
Busch W, Kuhnke J. Pyometra in cattle. Risk factors for post partum ovarian dysfunction in high producing dairy cows in Belgium: a field study. Influence of uterine bacterial contamination after parturition on ovarian dominant follicle selection and follicle growth and function in cattle.
The metritis-pyometra complex. Current therapy in theriogenology. Oestrogens and prostaglandins in the treatment of cattle affected with pyometra. Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde. Comparison of treatment of pyometra with estradiol cypionate or cloprostenol followed by infusion or non-infusion with nitrofurazone.
Endometrial cytology and ultrasonography for the detection of subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows. Prevalence of endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Bondurant RH. Inflammation in the bovine female reproductive tract. J Anim Sci. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.
Technique, histological criteria and results. Can J Vet Res. Comparison between cytology and histopathology to evaluate subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.
Van Camp SD. Endometrial biopsy of the mare.
Normal Abdominal Ultrasonography of the Horse
The recent introduction of more affordable and portable ultrasound equipment makes it possible to perform transabdominal ultrasonography in the field situation on equine patients. The unique feature of this review does not lie in the information provided, but in the way that the information will be provided. Ideally, prior to ultrasonography, the patient's hair should be clipped with a number 40 blade and the skin should be cleansed with isopropyl alcohol. Couplant gel should be liberally applied. If clipping the hair is not an option, soaking the hair with isopropyl alcohol will often suffice. Many horses will tolerate transabdominal ultrasonography without sedation.
DESCRIPCIÓN DIAGNÓSTICA DE LA ENDOMETRITIS AGUDA EN YEGUAS