From the molecular model to the impact on prognosis: an overview on acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute promyelocytic leukemia APL is a model of clinical applicability of the knowledge of molecular physiopathology. It is characterized by recurrent genetic involvement of the retinoic acid alpha receptor. The consequence is a protein with low sensibility to its ligand and a myeloid maturation arrest. Epidemiologically, it differs from other acute myeloid leukemia due to a higher incidence in young adults and in countries of "Latin" colonization. Differing from excellent results observed in developed countries, APL mortality in Brazil is still high, despite the wide availability of drugs.
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From the molecular model to the impact on prognosis: an overview on acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute promyelocytic leukemia APL is a model of clinical applicability of the knowledge of molecular physiopathology. It is characterized by recurrent genetic involvement of the retinoic acid alpha receptor. The consequence is a protein with low sensibility to its ligand and a myeloid maturation arrest. Epidemiologically, it differs from other acute myeloid leukemia due to a higher incidence in young adults and in countries of "Latin" colonization.
Differing from excellent results observed in developed countries, APL mortality in Brazil is still high, despite the wide availability of drugs. Key words: Acute myeloid leukemia. Acute promyelocytic leukemia. Assim como nas outras LMAs, sintomas constitucionais como febre, astenia, hiporexia e perda ponderal predominam.
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Acute promyelocytic leukemia was first characterized in   by French and Norwegian physicians as a hyperacute fatal illness,  with a median survival time of less than a week. The symptoms tend to be similar to AML in general with the following being possible symptoms: . Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving the retinoic acid receptor-alpha gene on chromosome 17 RARA. This fusion protein binds with enhanced affinity to sites on the cell's DNA, blocking transcription and differentiation of granulocytes. Although the chromosomal translocation involving RARA is believed to be the initiating event, additional mutations are required for the development of leukemia. Acute promyelocytic leukemia can be distinguished from other types of AML based on microscopic examination of the blood film or a bone marrow aspirate or biopsy as well as finding the characteristic rearrangement. The presence of promyelocytes containing multiple Auer rods termed faggot cells on the peripheral blood smear is highly suggestive of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly.
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