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Correspondence to :. Since the early days of medical history tongue acts as an index marker in early diagnosis of some of the systemic diseases. The tongue appears in embryos of approximately 4 weeks in the form of two lateral lingual swellings and one medial swelling, the tuberculam impar Sadler, These 3 swelling originate from the first pharyngeal arch. Another median swelling, the copula or hypobranchial eminence is formed by mesoderm of the second, third, and part of the fourth branchial arch which gives rise to posterior part of the tongue Sadler; Hamilton et al.
Besides relatively frequent tongue lesions, the prevalence of some rarely occurring conditions as reported earlier are bifid tongue 0. These tongue lesions showed no association with sex or age. Ugar-Cankal et al. Ankyloglossia was seen in 1. Bifid tongue was 0. The present study reports about the incidence of bifid tongue and ankyloglossia in south Indian population.
The patients of the southern costal belt of India were selected for the study along with their familial history and genetic make up. Each of these patients was examined for genetic diseases.
Among patients Bifid Tongue Fig. Ankyloglossia Fig. All these patients did not exhibit diabetic history of the parents. Disturbance in the organogenesis of tongue might lead to some malformations like tongue tie, bifid tongue and hairy tongue. Severe degrees of these anomalies may cause speech impairment or periodontal defects.
According to Ugar-Cankal et al. Infants born to diabetic mothers are well documented to have a higher rate of congenital malformations James et al. Bifid tongue.
Bifid tongue occurs due to failure of fusion of above mentioned branchial arches. Prevalence of it has been reported with babies of diabetic mother. James et al. On the contrary, Bhuiyan et al. Orhan et al. Mihci et al. Majority of the above reports suggest that bifid tongue occurs in addition to some other anomalies.
However, in the present case bifid tongue was not associated with any other deformity. Commonly known as tongue tie, is a congenital oral anomaly which may decrease mobility of the tongue tip and is caused by an unusually short, thick lingual frenulum, a membrane connecting the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth Horton et al.
Ankyloglossia varies in degree of severity from mild cases characterized by mucous membrane bands to complete ankyloglossia whereby the tongue is tethered to the floor of the mouth Sadler. Along the ventral and sides of the rudimentary tongue develops an endodermal alveolo-lingual sulcus which gradually separates the tongue from the floor of the mouth. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. It can be part of certain rare syndromes such as X linked cleft palate Moore et al.
Maternal cocaine use is reported to increase the risk of ankyloglossia to more than threefold Harris et al. Morowati et al. A study in Nigeria by Sawyer et al. The present report reveals that among South Indian population the occurrence of tongue tie is relatively rare with an incidence of 0. It is important to look for the genetic etiology of all diseases and anomalies to have specific treatments and prevent them.
This study has demonstrated that in South Indian population bifid tongue and ankyloglossia can occur without any genetic inheritance which suggests that occurrence of these anomalies vary in different races and different environmental conditions. The identification of the factors causing these anomalies might reveal novel information about craniofacial embryogenesis and the pathogenesis of this disorder. Bhuiyan, A. Chittagong Med.
Teachers' Assoc. Bouquot, J. Odd tongue: The Prevalence of Lingual Disease. Quintessence Int. Burdick, A. Hamilton, W. Human embryology: prenatal development of form and function. London, MacMillan Press Ltd. Harris, E. Enhanced prevalence of ankyloglossia with maternal cocaine use.
Cleft Palate Craniofac. Horton, C. Cleft Palate J. James, A. Bifid tongue: a rare feature associated with infants of diabetic mother syndrome. A, A, Khozeimeh, F. The prevalence of tongue abnormalities among the school children in Borazjan, Iran. Dent Res J. Mihci, E. Oral-facial digital syndrome type 1. Indian Pediatr. Mojarrad, F. Prevalence of tongue anomalies in Hamadan, Iran.
Iranian J. Health, , Moore, G. Linkage of an X-chromosome cleft palate gene. Nature, , Morowati, S. Familial ankyloglossia tongue-tie : a case report. Acta Med. Orhan, D. Prenatally diagnosed lethal type Larsen-like syndrome associated with bifid tongue. Sadler, T. Langman's medical embryology. New Delhi, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Salem, G.
Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. Sawyer, D. Oral anomalies in Nigerian children. Ugar-Cankal, D. Prevalence of tongue lesions among Turkish school children. Saudi Med. Correspondence to:. Email: rajalakshmi. Received: Accepted: Servicios Personalizados Revista. Correspondence to : SUMMARY : Disturbance in the organogenesis of tongue might lead to some malformations like tongue tie, bifid tongue and hairy tongue.
The present study was done on patients of the southern coastal belt of India during the past two years, on gross tongue anomalies. The results of the present study reveal that occurrence of tongue tie is 0.
Since great majority of these oral anomalies have genetic basis the purpose of the present report is to highlight that these anomalies can exist without any familial background and also to suggest that environmental factor may play a role in the etiogenesis of these anomalies. Casilla D Temuco - Chile Tel.
Anquiloglosia en la lengua o en los labios en bebés y niños
May 27, Servicios. While most babies are born with a piece of tissue, or frenulum , under the tongue and upper lip, it can sometimes be too restrictive and cause problems with breastfeeding, breathing, and speech development. Similarly, a lip tie is an excessive attachment of the upper lip to the gums. Sometimes special stretching can benefit the frenulum and problems improve. An experienced medical professional will be able to diagnose a lip tie that needs more intervention. If you have been told or your suspect that your child could have a tongue tie or lip tie, a trained medical professional can diagnose the issue and recommend the best treatment.
Frenectomy or Frenotomy for Ankyloglossia
Correspondence to :. Since the early days of medical history tongue acts as an index marker in early diagnosis of some of the systemic diseases. The tongue appears in embryos of approximately 4 weeks in the form of two lateral lingual swellings and one medial swelling, the tuberculam impar Sadler, These 3 swelling originate from the first pharyngeal arch. Another median swelling, the copula or hypobranchial eminence is formed by mesoderm of the second, third, and part of the fourth branchial arch which gives rise to posterior part of the tongue Sadler; Hamilton et al. Besides relatively frequent tongue lesions, the prevalence of some rarely occurring conditions as reported earlier are bifid tongue 0.